South Asians, descendants of contract labourers from Indiaare the largest ethnic group in Suriname, making up more than one-fourth of the population. The second major ethnic group, accounting for about one-fifth of the population, is the Maroons descendants of escaped slaves of African origin.
Creoles, who in Suriname are people of mainly African descent, constitute between one-tenth and one-fifth of the population. The descendants of Javanese people from the island of Java in Indonesia contract labourers and people of mixed ethnicity each make up almost one-seventh of the population.
Indians, descendants of the original inhabitants of Suriname, make up only a tiny fraction of the population. Dutch is the official language of Suriname, but the extent to which members of the various ethnic groups are able to use the language differs. Most of the population learns Dutch as a second language. Additional languages include Sranan and other creole languages ; English; Sarnami, which originated from Hindi and Urdu; Javanese ; and a number of Maroon and South American Indian languages.
The principal religion is Christianitybrought to Suriname by European colonizers. Nearly half of the people are Christians, mainly Roman Catholics and Moravians. Hindus, nearly all of whom are South Asians, account for about one-fifth of the population. Between one-tenth and one-fifth of Surinamese are Muslim, mostly the Javanese and a small South Asian group. Judaism, present in Suriname since the early 16th century, is still practiced, while many of the Chinese are Confucians. African and Indian religions are still widely followed.
About two-thirds of the Surinamese population resides in urban areas. Some two-fifths of them are concentrated in the capital, Paramariboand its surrounding area. The capital city is spread out along the Suriname River.
Suriname Population 2020 (Live)
Smaller urban centres include Nieuw Nickeriein the northwest near the Guyanese border; Albina, in the northeast on the border with French Guiana; Moengo, in the centre of the bauxite-mining region in northeastern Suriname; and Paranam, in the bauxite-mining and bauxite-processing region on the Suriname River south of Paramaribo. Small settlements of Maroons and Indians make up almost the entire population of the interior.
Some Indian villages are located in the coastal area, and nomadic groups live along the Brazilian border in the south. The birth rate in Suriname has steadily decreased since independence; indeed, from to it dropped by about half, to below the world average. More than one-fourth of the population is under age Afterwhen it was announced that Suriname would become independent, a large number of people emigrated to the Netherlands. Byaccording to some estimates, one-third of the population had left the country; many of those who left were professionals and skilled workers.
In the early 21st century, migration to the Netherlands had decreased significantly, and many retired workers had returned to Suriname. Meanwhile, starting in the late 20th century, significant numbers of Chinese immigrated to Suriname. In addition, during the early 21st century there was an influx of Brazilians, who came to the country mainly to work in gold-mining activities.
Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Load Previous Page. People Ethnic groups South Asians, descendants of contract labourers from Indiaare the largest ethnic group in Suriname, making up more than one-fourth of the population.
Load Next Page. More About. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.The name "Suriname" Sranan, Surinam may be of Amerindian origin. Suriname is a multiethnic, multicultural, multilingual, and multireligious country without a true national culture. Location and Geography.
Suriname is in South America but is considered a Caribbean country. The total area is 63, square milessquare kilometers. The majority of the inhabitants live in the narrow coastal zone. More than 90 percent of the national territory is covered by rain forest.
Suriname is a tropical country with alternating dry and rainy seasons. Since the early colonial days, Paramaribo has been the capital. The official population estimate in wasApproximately 35 to 40 percent of the population is of British Indian descent the so-called Hindostani30 to 35 percent is Creole or Afro-Surinamese, 15 percent is of Javanese descent, 10 percent is Maroon descended from runaway slavesand there are six thousand to seven thousand Amerindians.
Sincethe population has increased, but with many fluctuations. In the s, mass emigration to the Netherlands led to a population decrease; an estimatedSurinamers now live in the Netherlands. Linguistic Affiliation. The official language and medium of instruction is Dutch, but some twenty languages are spoken. The major creole language and lingua franca is Sranantongo, which developed at the plantations, where it was spoken between masters and slaves. Sranantongo is an English-based creole language that has African, Portuguese, and Dutch elements.
Attempts to make Sranantongo the official language have met with resistance from the non-Creole population. Other major languages are Sarnami-Hindustani and Surinamese-Javanese. The Chinese are Hakka-speaking. The Maroon languages are all English-based. Eight Amerindian languages are spoken. The major symbols of the "imagined community" are the national flag, the coat of arms, and the national anthem.
The flag was unveiled at independence. It consists of bands in green, white, red, white, and green. Green is the symbol of fertility, white of justice and peace, and red of patriotism.This article is about the demographic features of the population of Surinameincluding population densityethnicityeducation level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.
Most Surinamese people live in the narrow, northern coastal plain. The population is one of the most ethnically varied in the world. Each ethnic group preserves its own culture, and many institutions, including political parties, tend to follow ethnic lines. Informal relationships vary: the upper classes of all ethnic backgrounds mix freely; outside of the elite, social relations tend to remain within ethnic groupings. All groups may be found in the schools and workplace.
According to the revision of the World Population Prospects   the total population wasincompared to onlyin The proportion of children below the age of 15 in was The current population of Suriname will be different to these census figures, as the census records residents, and notes legal visitors, but does not record illegal immigrants.
According to estimates there may be as many as:. The total fertility rate for Suriname as a whole is 2. Maroons have the highest fertility rate, with 4.
On the other hand, Hindustani's have the lowest fertility with 1. Sranan Tongo is the lingua franca and second most spoken language of Suriname. English is mostly used in the business sector mainly to communicate with foreign businesses. Sarnami Hindustani is spoken by Surinamese Indian communtiy. Depending on the person this language can be either the mother tongue, second language or third language after Dutch or Sranan Tongo. Saramaccan is spoken by the Saramaka tribe of the Maroon community.
Aukan is mainly spoken by the Aukan tribe of the Maroon communitry. Javanese is spoken by the Surinamese Javanese community. Just like Sarnami HindustaniJavanese can be either the mother tongue, second language or third language after Dutch or Sranan Tongo for some. Hakka and Cantonese is spoken by Surinamese Chinese, mainly as a second language after Dutch. Cantonese was introduced in Suriname by the second wave of Chinese immigrants in Beginning in the s new migrants from China moved to Suriname, and Putonghuaduring circabecame the main Chinese lingua franca in the country.
French is spoken by some Maroons due to the cultural influence from French GuianaPortuguese mainly by immigrants from Brazil and Portugaland Spanish due to immigrants from, CubaVenezuelaColombiaand other Latin American countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Ethnic groups in Suriname.
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Ethnic groups of Suriname  Ethnic groups percent Hindustani. Archived from the original PDF on 27 June Retrieved 27 July Retrieved 9 November Presentatie Definitieve Resultaten Census 8 Vol.Surinamese people are people identified with the country of Suriname.
This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural.
Suriname - Ethnic groups
For most Surinamese, several or all of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Surinamese. Suriname is a multiethnic and multilingual society, home to people of various ethnicracialreligiousand national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants.
As a result, the Surinamese do not equate their nationality with ethnicitybut with citizenship and allegiance to Suriname. Aside from the indigenous populationnearly all Surinamese or their ancestors arrived since the Age of Discovery and establishment of the colony of Surinamprimarily from AfricaEurope and Asia.
The population of Suriname is made up of various distinguishable ethnic groups :. Most of the inhabitants live in the north of the country, in the districts of ParamariboWanica and Nickerie.
The least populated county is Sipaliwiniwhich covers most of the nation's interior and is sparsely inhabited. More than half of the population lives in and around the capital.
Migration to the Netherlands began during the colonial era.The Battle for Suriname's Rainforest
Initially this was mainly the colonial elite but expanded during the s and s to the less fortunate inhabitants looking for better education, employment, or other opportunities. Approximatelyindividuals of Surinamese descent now live in the Netherlands, with mass migration beginning in the years leading up to Suriname's independence inand continuing in the period immediately after independence and during military rule in the s.
Surinamese continued to migrate to the Netherlands throughout the s because of the then tough economic situation in Suriname. Other emigration destinations include French Guiana and the United States. In Suriname, there are no fewer than twenty languages spoken. Most Surinamese are multilingual. In terms of numbers of speakers are the main languages in Suriname, successively the Dutch languageSranan Tongo Surinamese CreoleEnglishSarnami Surinamese HindustaniJavaneseand different Maroon languages especially Saramaccan and Ndyuka.
Ethnic Composition Of The Population Of Suriname
Since most Surinamese people are multilingual for instance Dutch and Sranan Tongothe society functions as a diglossiawhere Dutch is the standardized and formal prestige register and Sranan Tongo generally the informal street vernacular. The following religious statistics have been reported as of .
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Surinamese people Flag of Suriname. Other than Dutch and Sranan Tongo, these are not spoken by the majority but rather only within the racial or ethnic minority group. Dutch, as the language of law, education, media and business, and Sranan Tongo, as the most widely spoken vernacular, are the only two languages spoken fluently by the majority of the Surinamese.
Retrieved November 9, Retrieved 5 October Retrieved 18 November Have you ever considered traveling to Suriname? A trip to this multicultural society can be both: an unforgettable fun experience as well as an educational one. The Surinamese culture is diverse and dynamic. This cultural diversity has strong Asian and African influences. The first inhabitants of this multicultural society in Suriname were the Amerindians.
In the early year of colonization, people from Africa were brought to Suriname to work as slaves at the plantations. Many African slaves escaped the plantations and fled into the interior where they resumed their western African culture, nowadays called maroon villages. After the abolition of slavery, Indonesian, Indian and Chinese laborers were imported to work on the plantations as immigrants.
This is how Suriname became a multi ethnic country. Most of the descendants of the different ethnic groups preserved their cultural identity. Today we can witness the multicultural society in Suriname: Amerindian folklore, African rites, Dutch architecture, Javanese food, Chinese costumes and Hindu traditions.
Next to these main ethnic groups Lebanese, Brazilians and a new flow of Chinese immigrants have added an extra dimension to the diverse Surinamese culture over the past few years. These relatively new immigrants moved to multicultural Suriname for commercial purposes mainly in the retail businessjob opportunities in the gold mines and the entertainment industry in the city.
Suriname is also a multilingual, multi ethnic and a multi religious country without a true national culture. The cultural diversity in Suriname has led to many cultural events. Every culture has at least one holiday to celebrate their culture.
Every traveler who visits Suriname experiences authentic cultures ,unique people from different parts of the world and pristine nature. The diversity of people who retain most of their original habits and customs, symbolize the multicultural society in Suriname which is one of a kind in the entire world. The Amerindians in Suriname, also known as the Indigenous people in Suriname, are the original inhabitants of Suriname. This ethnic group forms 3. In this multicultural society of Suriname, the indigenous people live in tribes with well kept ancient traditions and habits.
The tribes live mainly in the interior of the districts Para, Marowijne, Wanica and Sipaliwini. You can also enjoy many entertainment from different indigenous groups. The Africans in Suriname, also known as the Afro-Surinamese, are descends from slaves brought to work on plantations. Many of them escaped the plantations and fled to the interior, now known as maroons. They joined with indigenous peoples to create several independent tribes.
They kept vestiges of African cultures,languages and religions. Because of the long isolation in the interior the maroons maintained more African culture than African ethnic groups in the cities.Suriname is a pluralistic society consisting primarily of Creoles persons of mixed African and European heritagethe descendants of escaped African slaves known as Maroons, and the descendants of Indian and Javanese Indonesian contract workers.
The country overall is in full, post-industrial demographic transition, with a low fertility rate, a moderate mortality rate, and a rising life expectancy. However, the Maroon population of the rural interior lags behind because of lower educational attainment and contraceptive use, higher malnutrition, and significantly less access to electricity, potable water, sanitation, infrastructure, and health care.
Somepeople of Surinamese descent live in the Netherlands, Suriname's former colonial ruler. In the 19th century, better-educated, largely Dutch-speaking Surinamese began emigrating to the Netherlands.
World War II interrupted the outflow, but it resumed after the war when Dutch labor demands grew - emigrants included all segments of the Creole population. Suriname still is strongly influenced by the Netherlands because most Surinamese have relatives living there and it is the largest supplier of development aid.
Other emigration destinations include French Guiana and the United States. Suriname's immigration rules are flexible, and the country is easy to enter illegally because rainforests obscure its borders. Since the mids, Brazilians have settled in Suriname's capital, Paramaribo, or eastern Suriname, where they mine gold. This immigration is likely to slowly re-orient Suriname toward its Latin American roots.
This makes the economy highly vulnerable to mineral price volatility. The worldwide drop in international commodity prices and the cessation of alumina mining in Suriname significantly reduced government revenue and national income during the past few years. In Novembera major US aluminum company discontinued its mining activities in Suriname after 99 years of operation. Public sector revenues fell, together with exports, international reserves, employment, and private sector investment.
Depreciation of the Surinamese dollar and increases in tariffs on electricity caused domestic prices in Suriname to rise Suriname's economic prospects for the medium-term will depend on its commitment to responsible monetary and fiscal policies and on the introduction of structural reforms to liberalize markets and promote competition.
The government's over-reliance on revenue from the extractive sector colors Suriname's economic outlook. Following two years of recession, the Fitch Credit Bureau reported a positive growth of 1. Purchasing power has fallen rapidly due to the devalued local currency. The government has announced its intention to pass legislation to introduce a new value-added tax in We read every letter or e-mail we receive, and we will convey your comments to CIA officials outside OPA as appropriate.
However, with limited staff and resources, we simply cannot respond to all who write to us. Submit questions or comments online. Contact the Office of Privacy and Civil Liberties. Contact the Office of Inspector General. Contact the Employment Verification Office.Surinamecountry located on the northern coast of South America. Suriname is one of the smallest countries in South America, yet its population is one of the most ethnically diverse in the region.
Its economy is dependent on its extensive supply of natural resources, most notably bauxiteof which it is one of the top producers in the world. The southern four-fifths of the country is almost entirely covered with pristine tropical rainforest. Formerly known as Dutch Guiana, Suriname was a plantation colony of the Netherlands that gained its independence on November 25, From to the country was governed by a succession of military regimes. A new civilian constitution was approved in Another military coup took place inbut the country returned to civilian rule the following year.
Suriname is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, by French Guiana to the east, by Brazil to the south, and by Guyana to the west.
Suriname is involved in territorial disputes with both Guyana and French Guiana that are legacies of colonial rule. The dispute with Guyana centres on the New River Triangle, a 6,square-mile 15,square-km area between two tributaries of the Courantyne River in southern Guyana.
In addition to claiming the New River Triangle, Suriname also contests its border with Guyana along the Courantyne: Suriname claims sovereignty over the entire river and thus views its west bank as the border, while Guyana claims that the thalweg, or deepest channel of the river, is the boundary.
In a United Nations international tribunal settled another long-standing boundary dispute between the two countries, in which Suriname was awarded one-third of a disputed area of the Caribbean Sea. The area in contention with French Guiana is the 5,square-mile 13,square-km region between the Itany and Marouini rivers in the southwestern corner of French Guiana.
The narrow coastal zone, some miles km long, consists of sandbanks and mudbanks deposited by the southern equatorial currents from the area surrounding the mouth of the Amazon River located to the east of Suriname, in Brazil. South of the mudbanks begins the New Coastal Plain, also formed from sand and clay from the mouth of the Amazon.
The region, covering some 6, square miles 17, square kmconsists of swampland. The soil of the swamps is clay, in which a great deal of peat has formed. The region is traversed by sandy ridges that run parallel to the coast. It consists largely of fine clays and sands and contains a variety of topographiesincluding old ridges, clay flats, and swamps. South of the Old Coastal Plain is the Zanderij formationa mile- km- wide landscape of rolling hills.
This formation rests on bleached sand sediments, which are rich in quartz. Most of the region is covered by tropical rainforest, but swamps and areas of savanna grassland are also found. Farther to the south, bordering Brazil, is an area consisting largely of a central mountain range, its various branches, and scattered hilly areas; a vast tropical rainforest covers these highlands.
The highest summit, at 4, feet 1, metresis Juliana Top, in the Wilhelmina Mountains. In the southwest near the Brazilian border is the Sipaliwini Plain, another savanna area. They include the Courantynewhich forms part of the boundary with Guyana; the Coppename; the Suriname ; and the Maroniwhich forms part of the border with French Guiana. Suriname has a tropical climate.